Friday Funny: A Federal Income Tax is ‘Unconstitutional’

image_pdfimage_print
Seal of the Supreme Court of the United States of America. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
Seal of the Supreme Court of the United States of America. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

McMurray Family, Payne Family (Click for Family Tree)

Well, maybe this isn’t so funny… maybe funny-ironic?

Our “Friday Funny” today is courtesy of the 1895 Supreme Court ruling in Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co. concerning an 1894 taxation law:

“The tax imposed … so far as it falls on the income of real estate, and of personal property, being a direct tax, within the meaning of the constitution, and therefore unconstitutional and void, because not apportioned according to representation, all those sections, constituting one entire scheme of taxation, are necessarily invalid.”

Yes, they really declared income tax unconstitutional!

Since today is the anniversary of the founding of the Internal Revenue Service (though it did not yet have that name), on 1 July 1862, it is an appropriate day- of mourning, perhaps?- to consider how our ancestors saw income taxes and to explore how tax records are useful to family historians. They most likely did not find taxation funny either, but would have liked the idea that the Supreme Court felt certain taxes were unconstitutional.

Let’s go back to the beginning of income taxes:

"The Passage of the Tax Bill" detailing the new income tax, from the N.Y. Herald, printed in The Indiana State Sentinel: Vol. 22, No. 6, Whole No. 1,199, Page 1, Column 7. Via Chronicling America.
“The Passage of the Tax Bill” detailing the new income tax, from the N.Y. Herald, printed in The Indiana State Sentinel, 30 June 1862: Vol. 22, No. 6, Whole No. 1,199, Page 1, Column 7. Via Chronicling America.

That first federal tax collection was done to help fund the Union Civil War efforts to keep the country together.  Taxes were levied at 3% on incomes above $600 and 5% for incomes above $10,000. The bill was amended in 1864 and raised to 5% for incomes $600-$5,000, 7.5% for incomes $5,000-$10,000, and 10% on incomes greater than $10,000. (The Confederacy also levied taxes with a 1% tax on wages of $1,000-$2,500, and 2% on income over $2,500.)

Beginning an income tax to fund the Civil War surely made citizens have mixed feelings:

"The Passage of the Tax Bill" from the N.Y. Herald, printed in The Indiana State Sentinel, 30 June 1862: Vol. 22, No. 6, Whole No. 1,199, Page 1, Column 7. Via Chronicling America.
“The Passage of the Tax Bill” from the N.Y. Herald, printed in The Indiana State Sentinel, 30 June 1862: Vol. 22, No. 6, Whole No. 1,199, Page 1, Column 7. Via Chronicling America.

The Federal tax was to continue until 1866, however it remained in force until 1872.

Once Congress had gotten used to citizens filling the kitty each year for them to spend as they wished, new bills for taxation were introduced regularly. In our Constitution, Article 1 gives Congress the power to levy “Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises.” Direct taxes, however, were limited and Congress had to apportion them according to the population of a state; indirect taxes were not allowed. Apportionment was hard to do with an income tax, as some of the tax was collected on income from property, such as rental property or dividends on stocks, which was considered an ‘indirect tax’; therefore most thought an income tax was unconstitutional. (See references below for better legal details.)

Now back to Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co. Never fear, our Congress took action once an income tax was declared unconstitutional! Not fast though, as it took until 1913 for the 16th Amendment to be ratified and give Congress the power…

“to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”

The branch of government that collects taxes officially become the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in 1918.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Of course, there were taxes long before 1862- “No taxation without representation!” was the cry of the American Revolutionaries against the oppressive taxes of King George of England, and those taxes were instrumental in forming our new nation. Early in the republic, imports were taxed via tariffs, whiskey was taxed (leading to “The Whiskey Rebellion”,) and even glass window panes were taxed at one point, as only the wealthy could afford real glass. States could tax property owners, and those who were eligible to vote (white males) paid a ‘poll tax,’ one way to ensure that only those of means could vote. But there were no federal income taxes.

Sometimes tax records are the only record we can find of our very early ancestors. Tax information can also be used to differentiate two persons of the same name, such as Sr. and Jr. (not necessarily related, and the Jr. would become Sr. when the elder man in town died), father and son, etc., by looking at assets.

The Internal Revenue Service and other tax records can give us quite a lot of insight into our ancestors- their property, other items they owned, what was important at the time, their neighbors and family, even their relative standing in the community economically when we compare them to others in the neighborhood.

Tax records are sometimes challenging to understand, and often difficult to read, plus often one has to flip back some pages to find the headings, place, date, etc. But they can be interesting additions to the information we have about our ancestors, and they are worth the extra time in researching.

Coming up: some family tax records.

 

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

  1. Technically the first federal income tax bill was passed by Congress in 1861. That bill called for a 3% tax on incomes greater than $800, but was never put into force.
  2. “Taxation History of the United States”- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxation_history_of_the_United_States#Income_tax, accessed 6/26/16.
  3. “The First Income Tax,” Civil War trust- http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/warfare-and-logistics/logistics/tax.html, accessed 6/26/16.
  4. Images from Chronicling America/Library of Congress- http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014306/1862-06-30/ed-1/seq-1/#date1=1862&index=4&rows=20&words=income+tax&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=Indiana&date2=1862&proxtext=income+tax&y=11&x=11&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2016 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted. 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright or use of our blog material.

Wedding Wednesday: Anna M. Beerbower and Edgar Peter Beerbower in the Springsteen Family Bible

image_pdfimage_print
"Memoranda," page 6 of the Springsteen Family Bible record pages. (Click to enlarge.)
“Memoranda,” page 6 of the Springsteen Family Bible record pages. (Click to enlarge.)

Helbling Family, Beerbower Family, Springsteen Family (Click for Family Tree)

We complete our series on the Springsteen Family Bible records with a sad and sweet piece of “Memoranda.”

Transcription:

Inds 9-12-1891

Anna M. Beerbower

Divorced from E. P. Beerbower

Sept. 12-1891 by Judge Harks

================================

Anna M. Beerbower & E. P. Beerbower

Remarried Dec. 26-1908, St. Charles, Mo.

 

These entries reference Anna Missouri (Springsteen) Beerbower, daughter of Jefferson and Anna (Conner) Springsteen, and her husband Edgar Peter Beerbower.

The family story is that “E.P.” Beerbower worked for the railroad, and would be gone for long stretches of time because of his job on the train. The story is that he also came home frequently without a paycheck- possibly due to a drinking or gambling problem or ?? per their granddaughter, Mary Theresa (Helbling) McMurray. Anna would have been left alone frequently, and would have needed to find a way to feed her 3 children. (Anna had 2 other children, one who only lived one day after birth, the other only about two months.) She had family nearby when they were living in Indiana, but after they moved to Illinois- they were in Urbana, Champaign, Illinois before November of 1885, and Cairo, Alexander, Illinois by 17 April 1887- she would have had to care for the family herself.

Less than three years after the death of their last son on the day after his birth, Anna was granted a divorce on 12 September 1891 in Indianapolis, Indiana. Son Robert W. was about 17, Edgar S. about 15, and Anna May just 10 years old. Anna Missouri moved to Indianapolis- probably to be near family- and was living with her sons Robert Warson Beerbower and Edgar Springsteen Beerbower in 1897, when she was listed as a widow in the Indianapolis City Directory. (Anna May was probably there too, but daughters would not have been listed i the city directory.)

By 1900 Anna and her three children had moved to St. Louis, Missouri. Could the move have been to be closer to E.P.? We do not know, and know of no other family in St. Louis but it was a railroad hub. As per the entry above, the two were remarried in 1908. A marriage record has possibly been found for the couple, although it is a hard to read. A marriage record for 28 December 1908 (2 days later than the bible entry) with the husband as “E P Beerbower” and the wife’s name “Mrs. Mae Clore” is in Ancestry’s Missouri Marriage Records 1805-2002 database. Interestingly, the record states that EP Beerbower was from Indianapolis, and “Mrs. Mae Clore” from St. Louis. The wife’s name on this record my have been copied incorrectly, as their granddaughter, who was very close to her grandmother who lived with them, did state that they had remarried, and lived together until EP’s death in 1916.

Don’t you just love happy endings?

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

  1. Family treasure chest.
  2. Missouri Marriage Record for EP Beerbowere and Mrs. Mae Clore: http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&db=MOmarriages&h=100516

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2016 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted. 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright or use of our blog material.

Mystery Monday: Mary G. (Springsteen) Mythen

image_pdfimage_print
Mary G. Springsteen marriage to John Mitten from Springsteen Family Bible.
Mary G. Springsteen marriage to John Mithen from Springsteen Family Bible. (Click to enlarge.)

Helbling Family, Springsteen Family (Click for Family Tree)

 

So just who is Mary G. (Springsteen) Mithen/Mythen? And why is she in our family bible?

 

Mary is listed in the Springsteen Family Bible twice- once as getting married, the second a record of her death.

Mary G. (Springsteen) Mitten death from Springsteen Family Bible. (Click to enlarge.)
Mary G. (Springsteen) Mithen death from Springsteen Family Bible. (Click to enlarge.)

There was (and still is) a St. Patrick’s Church in Indianapolis, Indiana, at that time.

No one other than immediate family members (and their spouses) are mentioned in the bible, plus two grandchildren.

There is no birth record of a Mary G. Springsteen that we have found, but there is a Mary E. Springsteen who was the daughter of Jefferson and Anna M. (Conner) Springsteen. It does not seem logical that they would have a daughter with the first same name and a different middle initial, and there is no record of an additional daughter. Mary E. married Joseph Beckwith in 1872; Mary G. married John Mithen in 188(6?). Mary E. did not have a second marriage that we know of, is buried with family in Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis as a Beckwith, and the handwriting in the bible record is clear enough to be the middle initials discussed.

Interestingly, the Indiana Marriage Index 1800-1941 on Ancestry.com lists a Mary A. Galvin who married John Mithen on 25 February 1885 in Marion County, Indiana- the number written in the bible could easily be a 5 instead of a 6. The Galvin name could explain the Mary “G.” Springsteen.

Mary A. Galvin was about 19 when she married John per the marriage record, so she would have been born about 1866, and the bible states she died in 1906.

So was the Mary in our Springsteen Family Bible a Galvin who married first a Springsteen, and then John Mithen? Or was she a Springsteen who married a Galvin, then John Mithen? She was only 19 when she married John, so she would have been a very young widow but that was possible. Or was Galvin just her middle name?

Getting a copy of the marriage record might be of help in learning more about Mary.

It would be interesting to know if she is a married-in, or a Springsteen cousin. Of the Springsteens that we know about, there is no Mary G. Springsteen. Jefferson’s brother Abraham, who also lived in Indianapolis, had only two sons who survived into adulthood per our research.

One last minute bit of research, since doing genealogy is like eating potato chips- you just can’t stop:

FamilySearch has a listing for the marriage of Anna Laurel Mythen, who married Robert Willis Merriam on 23 November 1910 in Medford, Massachusetts. Anna was 20 as was her groom, but she was born in **Indianapolis, Indiana.** Her parents were listed as John Mythen and Mary A. Springsteen. Note that Mary’s middle initial is “A” instead of “G” in this source. Another Massachusetts marriage record states that Anna Laurel’s mother’s middle name was “Agnes.”

The 1910 US Federal Census for Anna L shows her living in the Merriam household, where her future husband is a son. Anna is listed as being born in Indiana, but her parents (John Mythen and Mary Agnes Springsteen) as born in Holland-Dutch! Of course, we do not know who gave that information, and ‘our’ Springsteens have been in America even before it was a country- back into the 1600s. So that does not fit, but otherwise it sure does seem like this is the correct family. But how are they related to ‘our’ Springsteens?

Any light that can be shed on this mystery would be much appreciated!

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

  1. Family treasure chest.
  2. Indiana Marriage Index 1800-1941 on Ancestry.com.
  3. FamilySearch marriage record for Anna Laurel Mythen- “Massachusetts Marriages, 1841-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:N48R-YQP : accessed 12 June 2016), John Mythen in entry for Robert Willis Merriam and Anna Laurel Mythen, 23 Nov 1910; citing Medford, , Massachusetts, United States, State Archives, Boston; FHL microfilm 2,315,512.
    https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-63PY-4Z?i=696&wc=3G11-PTL%3A1063288401%3Fcc%3D1469062&cc=1469062

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2016 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted. 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright or use of our blog material.

Sorting Saturday: Memoranda from the Springsteen Family Bible

image_pdfimage_print
Paper clipped to "Memoranda," page 6 of the Springsteen Family Bible record pages.
Paper clipped to “Memoranda,” page 6 of the Springsteen Family Bible record pages.

Helbling Family, Springsteen Family (Click for Family Tree)

We continue our posts of the Springsteen Family Bible with the small piece of paper clipped to the “Memoranda” page:

It reads:

Baby Born 2/26/06

”      Baptized 4/22/06

Mary My then died 4/15/06

Jefferson Springsteen died 4/14/05

John           ”    died 5/2/06

Ed married 10/19/05

Mother           4/2/07

Baby died      6/12/07

The dear “Baby” who has a birth, baptism, and death listed was the first child of Anna May (Beerbower) Helbling (1881-1954) and William Gerard Helbling (1882-1971). Anna May was the daughter of Anna Missouri (Springsteen) Beerbower (1854-1939), probably the original owner of the bible. The baby’s name was William Francis Helbling. Anna Missouri had two of her own five children die young- one just a day old, the other only nine weeks- so she surely understood the pain that her daughter felt at losing a child. It was probably doubly painful to Anna Missouri because she had lost her first grandson (she did have a granddaughter at that date), but also to see her own baby in pain from losing a baby must have been almost unbearable.

If memory serves, Mary T. (Helbling) McMurray said that the handwriting was that of her grandmother, Anna Missouri, but the last 3 entries on this scrap were written by her own mother, Anna May.

Mary Mythen is Mary G. (Springsteen) Mythen (or Mithen), married to John Mythen. See next week’s “Mystery Monday: Mary G. (Springsteen) Mythen” for the little bit we know about Mary and John.

The Jefferson Springsteen who died 4/14/05 would be the younger family member, known as Thomas Jefferson Springsteen, born in 1848. He was the brother of Anna Missouri (Springsteen) Beerbower, the bible owner, thus son of Jefferson Springsteen (1820-1909) and Anna M. (Conner) Springsteen (1824-1887).

Anna Missouri’s other brother John William Springsteen is listed on the scrap with his death date. The rest of her siblings died in the 1930s, except baby Joseph Springsteen who only lived not quite two years, and Mary Elizabeth (Springsteen) Beckwith, who died in 1928.

The Ed who married in 1905 was Edgar Springsteen Beerbower (1876-1940, Anna May’s brother. His wife was Rosabel K. Hoppe (1885-1976), but sadly their marriage did not last, and they divorced sometime between 1920 and 1930.

The next entry for “Mother” likely means that Anna May’s mother married on 4/2/1907. Anna Missouri (Springsteen) Beerbower had divorced her husband years before, but had, as was common, been listed as ‘widowed’ on the census and even in an 1897 Indianapolis, Indiana city directory. This marriage entry is curious, as Anna Missouri was living in St. Louis in 1900, and she and Edgar Peter Beerbower (1849-1916) did remarry. A marriage record has been found for her husband dated either 26 or 28 December 1908- a very different date than what is in the bible. The marriage record is  for E. P. Beerbower (Edgar did use his initials) and a “Mrs. Mae Clore.”

Marriage record of E.P. Beerbower and "Mrs. Mae Clore," 26 December 1908, via Ancestry.com.
Marriage record of E.P. Beerbower and “Mrs. Mae Clore,” 26 December 1908, via Ancestry.com.

This does not make sense with anything we know of the family, as in 1910 Anna Missouri and Edgar P. Beerbower were living together in Indianapolis. No re-marriage certificate has been found for them in Indiana (their 1873 first marriage is a record available on Ancestry.com), and none with Anna Missouri’s name on it. Clerical error, perhaps, with the marriage register? Anyone have other ideas?

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

  1. Family treasure chest.

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2016 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted. 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright or use of our blog material.

Funeral Card Friday: Deaths from the Springsteen Family Bible

image_pdfimage_print
Page4 of Springsteen Bible Family Records- Deaths. (Click to enlarge.)
Page 4 of Springsteen Bible Family Records- Deaths. (Click to enlarge.)

Helbling Family, Springsteen (Click for Family Tree)

Although this page is technically not a funeral card, it does give more information about the deaths of our ancestors than a funeral card might. Since the Springsteens were Catholic, they would have had funeral cards made up if they could afford it. (It was surprising that none were found in the bible.) Unfortunately none have survived to this author’s knowledge.

[Left Column]

Joseph Springsteen

Died Tues May 20th 1862 Indianapolis

[Ed. Note: Last child of Jefferson and Anna (Conner) Springsteen; died before his second birthday.]

==================================

John Springsteen Sr.

Died March 19th 72 Indianapolis

[Ed. Note: The year was 1872. The father of Jefferson Springsteen, John Springsteen born 1782, died 19 March 1867 per his death notice in the “Indianapolis Herald.” Was the year of 1872 an error in the bible record, since the bible copyright was 1876 and thus the entry was written after the fact? Or could this be John’s father? Or was he called “John Sr.” because he was the grandfather of John William Springsteen?]

==================================

Laura May Springsteen

Died April 13th 73 at 359 E. Market St.

Indianapolis

[Ed. Note: The year was 1873. Laura May (Longfellow) Springsteen, born 1853, was the wife of Abram Furman Springsteen, and the mother of his first child, Laura G. Springsteen. She died just 24 days after giving birth to their daughter.]

==================================

Laura May G. Springsteen

Died Sunday Mar. 29th 1885 at the

Residence of her Grand parents

208 Daugherty St.    5-30 P.M.

Indianapolis Ind.

[Ed. Note: Laura Grace Alien Longfellow Springsteen, whose mother died less than a month after giving birth to her, was at the home of Jefferson and Anna M. (Conner) Springsteen when she herself died. She most likely was being raised by her grandparents, although her father is listed in their household in the 1880 US Federal Census but she is not. He remarried, to Ida Belle Dumont- probably a sister to his brother Robert’s wife Anna Dumont- in 1881. Abram married again in July of 1885 to Emma Isola Coombs, after young Laura’s death in March. (We don’t know if Ida bell died or they divorced.)]

==================================

John W. Springsteen

Died May 2[?- scratched through] 1906.

Indianapolis Ind.

[Ed. Note: Oldest son of Jefferson and Anna (Conner) Springsteen. Death date was 2 May 1906. His wife predeceased him in 1887.]

==================================

[Right Column]

Anna M. Springsteen

Died April 17 1878 1887 Cairo

Sunday 5 P.M.

[Ed. Note: This is Anna M. (Conner) Springsteen, probably the original bible owner. At her death, she most likely was visiting her daughter Anna Missouri (Springsteen) Beerbower in Cairo, Illinois.]

==================================

Robert Warson Beerbower

Died Sept 12th-1900, Denver Colo

Wednesday, 2 A. M.

[Ed. Note: Robert was the oldest child of Anna Missouri (Springsteen) Beerbower and her husband Edgar Peter Beerbower. His only child, Roberta Pearl Beerbower, was born the month after he died, so he never saw his daughter. Colorado death records are closed to family historians unless immediate family, so we cannot know Robert’s cause of death. Around the turn of that century, many of those with tuberculosis went to Colorado for treatment and recuperation- could that have been the case with Robert, even though his first child was to be born soon? Or was he just there for railroad business?]

==================================

Jefferson Springsteen Jr.

Died Apr 14-1905 Indianapolis

Buried Crown Hill Apr 17- 2 P.[or A.?]M.

Age 56 years.

[Ed. Note: This is Thomas Jefferson Springsteen, born in 1848, son of Jefferson and Anna M. (Conner) Springsteen.]

==================================

Jefferson Springsteen Sr.

Died Sept 15-1909 Indianapolis Ind

Buried Crown Hill Cemetary

Age 89 years_

[Ed. Note: Son of John Springsteen and Mary Logan, and husband to Anna M. (Conner) Springsteen.]

 

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

  1. Family treasure chest.

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2016 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted. 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright or use of our blog material.