Church Record Sunday: Essex County, Massachusetts Court Records for 1642

"The Life of Faith in Three Parts," 1670 by Richard Baxter(1615-1691) via https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Puritans#/media/File:The_life_of_faith_-_in_three_parts_(1670)_(14780420531).jpg
The Life of Faith in Three Parts,” 1670 by Richard Baxter(1615-1691) via
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Puritans#/media/File:The_life_of_faith_-_in_three_parts_(1670)_(14780420531).jpg

McMurray Family, Burnell Family (Click for Family Tree)

Still perusing the transcribed court records in the Essex Antiquarian from 1642-3 (see our first post, “Amanuensis Monday: Essex County, Massachusetts Court Records for 1642” at http://heritageramblings.net/2015/11/09/amanuensis-monday-essex-county-massachusetts-court-records-for-1642/), today we focus on religion. Although technically not ‘church records,’ at this time in the New England colonies, the church and state were inexorably linked, although not as deeply as they had been in England.

The English Anglican Church had continued the Catholic sacrament of baptism to remove original sin; it was required for salvation. The Puritans, however, believed that a pious life was more important than this sacrament, and wished to have less church hierarchy involved in daily life; infant baptism thus fell out of favor. Apparently, however, Essex, Massachusetts gained a new minister who reverted to requiring infant baptism for salvation, and this change was a problem for many.

Lady Deborah Moody was to appear in court for “not believing in infant baptism.” Lady Moody did not appear in court but it was said that she was “in a way of conviction before the elders.” Apparently the church elders were going to work with her to change her beliefs, but quite a number of residents were cited for similar “mis”-convictions:

“Mr. Cobbett taught things against his [the defendant, William Winter’s] own conscience, and for speaking against the ordinance of infant baptism… He is willing to see the light from speech of our elder Mr. Norris. To acknowledge his fault next lecture and ask Mr. Cobbet’s forgiveness.”

“Thomas Patience by a common fame, and upon vehement suspicion, not only of holding, but also of fomenting ye error that baptism of infants is no ordinance of God, and hindering his child from baptism.”

Not only was holding thoughts against infant baptism bad, but “argument in public” or “speaking contemptuously of it” were also prosecuted.

Religious services went long into the Sabbath, and the crowded churches were probably warm on humid summer days, and cold in the winter. The droning words of the sermon likely had a soporific effect, especially after six days of hard labor, but acting on those sleepy impulses was not acceptable:

Jeffrey Esty/Estie was “admonished for much sleeping on the Lord’s days in time of exercise.”

‘Exercise’ in this case is a religious observance or service, not ‘working out’ as we know it.

Roger Scott of Lynn was brought to court for “common sleeping at public exercise on Lord’s day, and for striking him who waked him.” (!!)

The Sabbath had restrictions on what could be done that day- absolutely no work:

The servant John Colever was presented to the court for “carrying a burden on the Lord’s day.” He did not appear, as he was out of the country.

During that same session, Joshua Downing was called for “carrying a burden upon an ass on ye Lord’s day about two years ago.” (No statute of limitations?) Richard Norman was “fined for slighting ordinances and carrying burden on Lord’s day.”

“Ordinances” were part of the church ritual in this case, not just the town laws. One William Robinson not only slighted, but was absent from ordinances, and was cited as well for “carrying a fowling piece on Lord’s day.” As a ‘fowling piece’ was a gun used to shoot birds, hopefully he had leftovers available for dinner.

The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England, via Wikimedia, CC by 2.5 license, author Austen Redman.
The old village stocks in Chapeltown, Lancashire, England, via Wikimedia, CC by 2.5 license, author Austen Redman.

We take our free speech for granted, and grew up learning that the colonists came to this country in order to find the freedom of speech and religion they did not have in England. That freedom apparently only went so far. One William Goult of Salem, was cited “for reproachful and unseemly speeches against the rule of ye church.”

Punishment for his freely spoken words was “to sit in stocks an hour and be severely whipped next lecture day.” Part of the public humiliation included that the feet protruding from the stocks were to be bare (how scandalous!), and the weather did not matter- these court cases occurred in winter, so that one hour of public indignity was probably pretty miserable. Assuredly the whipping on the next lecture day would have been worse. Both of these punishments are found in the bible.

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

    1. The Essex Antiquarian. Salem, MA: The Essex Antiquarian, 13 vols. 1897-1909. (Online database: AmericanAncestors.org. New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2006.) Volume 4, pages 123-126.

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2015 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted.
 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 
Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright of our blog material.



Amanuensis Monday: Essex County, Massachusetts Court Records for 1642

A Puritan gathering, from "New England, old and new; a brief review of some historical and industrial incidents in the Puritan "New English Canaan," still the Land of promise." via Wikimedia; public domain.
A Puritan gathering, from “New England, old and new; a brief review of some historical and industrial incidents in the Puritan “New English Canaan,” still the Land of promise.” via Wikimedia; public domain.

Since we have been time-traveling to the 1600s in New England, sharing some  court records that were published in the Salem, Massachusetts genealogy and history magazine called Essex Antiquarian might help give us a better sense of how a community operated, proscribed behavior, and punished those who did not follow the rules (and were caught).

These records are a circa 1900 transcription of records published from the Salem [Essex County, Massachusetts] Quarterly Court Records and Files, Court, 27:10:1642 [maybe 27 December 1642?, since the first month of the year was March in Old Style (O.S.) dating, so the 10th month would be December. Need to research this to make sure the month was not changed by the transcriber to the New Style (N.S.) dating we still use, in which the 10th month is October.] We have also included some records from the second court session, 28:12:1642. These records are available on the New England Historic Genealogical Society’s website, AmericanAncestors.org, which does require a paid membership to access most of their records. (Worth it!) These records were in the Essex Antiquarian, Volume 4, pages 123-5.

Research has shown that our earliest Burnell ancestor yet found, Robert Burnell, was born in Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts in 1669, married there to Sarah Chilson, and died in Lynn in 1737. Their son John Burnell was born there in 1696 too, but this family has not yet been thoroughly researched in this time and place. (So many ancestors, so little research time.) It is very highly likely that Robert’s parents lived in Lynn, for at least a short period of time since he was born there. Robert’s parents (names unknown) or their parents may been in the courtroom for one of the following cases!

These court cases are not written exactly as published, in order for them to be more clear to the modern reader. If I have corrected all the spell-check corrections, they will have retained some of the charming spelling and phrases of the 1600s. Sections in quotation marks are directly from the records transcribed.

Will of Samuel Smith of Enon proved. J[onathan or John] Thorndyke deposed [stated] that Samuel “had his senses” when the will was written. George Emory deposed that “The vapors in his stomake caused paine in his head,” etc.

Alcoholic beverages were used for hydration instead of water to prevent water-borne illnesses like dysentery, parasites, etc. Even children drank spirits, such as cider or “small” beer which was watered down. Excessive use of alcohol by some was a problem in the 1600s as it has been for centuries. Here are a few cases that indicate such:

“Joseph Dalebar testified that Singleton was distempered with liquor and reeled out of Kieney’s house.” There was another witness as well.

“Thomas Gary of Marblehead, whipped for drunkeness.”

Thomas Tuck of Salem was “fined for drunkeness and tippling.” Tippling is drinking small amounts of alcohol continuously, or larger amounts excessively, but apparently Thomas finally got enough to make him drunk. One Roger Scott was taken to court for “idle speeches and excessive drinking.”

Wonder if there was some alcohol involved in this case:

John Peach Sr. was “fined for giving Trustrum Doliver opprobrious provoking words urging to a breach of ye peace.” ‘Opprobrious’ is derived from the Latin for “to reproach or taunt.” Hopefully there was only the urge to break the peace after these words, rather than a real fight.

All sorts of cases passed through the court: A Mr. Johnson was cited for ” breach of town order, felling trees.” [No noisy chainsaws in those days, though.]

A servant named Henry Bullflower visited and entered the houses of two residents “in time of public meeting on Lord’s day, and there taking and eating provisions.” He was severely whipped for breaking and entering and eating.

Twelve men were taken to court for keeping their cattle “in ye common corn fields, and 11 were fined. One man was not fined, “his cattle being “diseased.” [? maybe not right in the head so they wandered?] Another man was only levied half of the fine, as the cattle were his brother’s “a poor man Gone for England & his wife here” per the court record. (This does show how families migrated together so they could work together to survive in the New World.)

Frances Perry went to court for “putting his oxen in to South field before harvest.” The towns had even more regulations for farming than there are today, but following them was important. The community had common fields and assigned each family a proscribed lot. These oxen may have trampled and eaten part of the neighboring crop; even if they didn’t, Goodman Perry was breaking the rules and must be punished for that.

The term “quit” is used in legal parlance to mean vacate, give up possession, or discontinue. “Suffering” means allowing. This is my favorite of today’s notices:

“William Keney of Marblehead presented for suffering disorder in his house. Quit; not being his house.”

Ahh, legal technicalities.

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

  1. The Essex Antiquarian. Salem, MA: The Essex Antiquarian, 13 vols. 1897-1909. (Online database: AmericanAncestors.org. New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2006.) Volume 4, pages 123-126.

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2015 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted.
 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 
Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright of our blog material.



Today in History: The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

States & territories of the US 1789-1790
States & Territories of the US 1789-1790, via http://www.thefederalistpapers.org. (Click to enlarge.)

Benjamin and McMurray FamiliesLee Family, Springsteen and Beerbower Families,  Roberts Family (Click for Family Tree)

OK, so is this a family history blog or is it boring history class???

Well, to fully understand our family’s history, we need to know the history of the time and place in which they lived. It is the only way to get a feel for the pressures they faced in their daily lives- did they live in the city and have to worry about armed gangs roaming the streets, or out on the frontier where Indians were fighting to preserve their own lands from encroachment? Did they live on a farm and experience the seasonal calendar of crops and livestock? Or were they seafarers who worried about storms and the quality of wood used for the hull of their ship? How did our ancestors meet their daily needs for food, water, and shelter? How did they travel to new homesteads, new places to meet and marry? What wars did they fight in, whether soldier or civilian? Where are they buried, and why there? Answering even some of these questions begins a story about those who came before, and those who have made us who we are. They take the ‘boring’ out of genealogy- who begat who and when is just not that interesting! But if you tell a story of how two parents met, their challenges as they raised their children, and the legacy of grandchildren left behind, THAT makes interesting genealogy, and interesting lessons to apply to our own lives.

Today, 13 July, is the 228th anniversary of the Northwest Ordinance, officially known as “An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio.” The Second Continental Congress passed this act in 1787, creating the first official territory of the new country. The territory comprised those lands west of the Appalachian Mountains with the upper Mississippi River becoming the westernmost boundary; the northern boundary was British Canada and the Great Lakes, down to the Ohio River as the southernmost boundary. Our Benjamin and Ford ancestors lived in this territory, so knowing a bit about it will enhance what we understand of their lives. Others of our families moved into these territories or early states, and may have been there even before: Aiken, Russell, Springsteen, Beerbower, McMurray, Roberts, Daniel, and Murrell.

What makes the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 so important is that it explained how the Federal Government would expand via public domain land, and create new states, rather than the previous method of the states just expanding ever westward with their competing claims for land. Note in the first image how Virginia and Georgia claimed property far to the west-  in Georgia’s case, even through much of what is now Alabama and Mississippi. When searching for very old records, one would need to look in records for those original states claiming property, even though the hometown might now be in Indiana!

The Congress approved a bill of rights for the citizens in the Northwest Territory, and guaranteed that the new states would be equal to the original thirteen colonies in all respects. Slavery was outlawed in the new territory, and thus would be outlawed as the areas became states. (The NW Ordinance was therefore a contributing factor to the Civil War.)

Earlier ordinances (1784, 1785) for this territory, provided for self-governing districts and representation to Congress. In 1787,the ordinance required surveying and land grant units to be determined on a township basis, which was six miles square. A settler had to buy at least one square mile (640 acres) and pay at least one dollar per acre. (Land prices in the Midwest now range from about $5,000-10,000 per acre, or even more.) Each township had one section set aside for a school, and the 1787 Ordinance mandated that education would be provided in the territory.

Northwest Territory of USA- 1787 via Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Northwest Territory of USA- 1787 via Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. (Click to enlarge.)

The 1787 NW Ordinance also outlined the steps that parts of the territory would need to take to become a state. Initially, Congress appointed a governor and judges; when a part of the territory reached 5,000 adult free males, it would become a territory and govern with its own legislature, although the governor still had veto power. Attainment of a population of 60,000 allowed a territory to petition to be admitted to the Union as one of at least 3 but no more than 5 states carved from the Northwest Territory. Ohio was the first of the new states, in 1803, followed by Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.

We will ‘explore’ the Northwest Territories and our ancestors who walked those lands in upcoming posts.

 

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

1) Some resources used for this post:

http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=8

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/northwest.html

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/420076/Northwest-Ordinances

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/congress-enacts-the-northwest-ordinance

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Ordinance

2) The first image is from The Federalist Papers Project: http://www.thefederalistpapers.org/the-northwest-ordinance.

Please note that these articles are submitted by various writers and many are op-ed type articles, some with an agenda and some not necessarily fact-checked. It is a great map, however, for the 1787 NW Ordinance, and we appreciate that they allow use of their graphics.

 

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2015 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted.
 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 
Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright of our blog material.



Shopping Saturday: Souvenirs from the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair

Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World's Fair-Pressed Ruby Glass Punch Cup-front.
Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair-Pressed Ruby Glass Punch Cup-front.

 

The word “souvenir” comes from the French for a memory or remembrance, and the promoters of the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair produced a lot of trinkets to keep the memories alive for many years. Unfortunately I do not know of any of these souvenirs that have come down in our family; those in this post are from my own collection. I do know the Helbling family attended the fair with friends, as did the Greens, and probably any of our families that lived in St. Louis during that exciting time strolled the avenues and marveled at the exhibits. I sometimes like to imagine that one of these objects may have belonged to them and found its way back to family.

[I apologize for the poor photography. Many of these items are really hard to photograph without a lot of light-rigging, camera fussing, etc.]

Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World's Fair-Pressed Ruby Glass Punch Cup-back with name "Hazel."
Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair-Pressed Ruby Glass Punch Cup-back with name “Hazel.”

The fair sold many useful items that could be displayed as well:

Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World's Fair-Transferware Porcelain small tumbler- Palace of Manufactures.
Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair-Transferware Porcelain small tumbler- Palace of Manufactures.

Items promoted each of the major buildings at the fair, such as the glasses above and below.

Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World's Fair- Pressed glass number with gold rim.
Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair- Pressed glass tumbler with gold rim and various buildings on it.

Below is one of my favorite items- a collapsible cup.

Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World's Fair-Collapsible Travel Cup, collapsed.
Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair-Collapsible Travel Cup, collapsed.

I remember having little plastic collapsible cups bought at souvenir stands while on vacation, and it seems I had a Girl Scout one as well. It was therefore fun to find this one from a much earlier time. I always loved these cups because you could carry them in a pocket until needed. OK, they did often leak, though this one from 1904 made from metal still holds water pretty well.

Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World's Fair-Collapsible Travel Cup, extended.
Souvenir of 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair-Collapsible Travel Cup, extended.

Appropriately, the image on the top was of the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy.

 

More 1904 World’s Fair memorabilia to come.

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

1) Items from the author’s collection.

2) The Missouri History Museum (mohistroy.org) is located in Forest Park on the site of the 1904 World’s Fair in the old Jefferson Memorial building, and has expanded to house a wide range of exhibits. (Their Lewis and Clark exhibit was outstanding.) The museum has an excellent continuing exhibit about the 1904 Fair. If you can’t get to St. Louis to see it, they have developed a wonderful interactive website with photos, maps, etc.: The 1904 World’s Fair: Looking Back at Looking Forward.

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2015 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted.
 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 
Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright of our blog material.



Those Places Thursday: The St. Louis World’s Fair, 1904

1904 Louisiana Purchase Festival Hall. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
1904 Louisiana Purchase Festival Hall. Via Wikimedia, public domain.

If you did not live in St. Louis, Missouri in 1904, but had family or friends who did, your vacation would definitely be visiting them that year. Even if you didn’t have somewhere you could stay free, St. Louis was on the agenda for 19,694,855 people between 30 April 1904 and 01 December 1904.

The nation had come out of the worst recession it had ever seen to that date- the Panic of 1893 had repercussions for many years. The economy started a rapid growth spurt after William McKinley became President in 1897 and gold was found in the Klondike. The country’s pent-up demand for good times and fun played out at the fair, and Americans had the money to spend on travel and souvenirs.

The Government Building at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
The Government Building at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, as it was formally known,  was to celebrate the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; opening had been delayed one year to allow more participation. It was truly an international exposition, with exhibits built by 62 foreign countries, 43 states (there were only 45 in the Union at that time), and the U. S. Government.

The fair took up 1,200 acres in prime St. Louis neighborhoods, and today those grounds are Forest Park and the Washington University campus. The ‘Flight Cage’ or Aviary  (A huge bird cage in which birds fly free- very innovative for the time) is now at the St. Louis Zoo, and the Palace of Fine Art, a magnificent building, has become the St. Louis Art Museum; the statue of St. Louis on his horse is out in front.

1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition East Lagoon. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition East Lagoon. Via Wikimedia, public domain.

Beautiful, expensive mansions existed alongside the 1,500+ fair buildings, with most of them constructed of “staff,” a mixture of hemp fibers and plaster of Paris, placed on a wooden frame. All but two of the buildings were only meant to last 1-2 years for the fair, but had to be continually patched throughout the seven months the fair was officially open.

With 75 miles of walkways and roads, and buildings as big as 20 acres such as the Palace of Agriculture, everything at the fair could hardly be seen in a week. A local guide, such as a family member or friend, would help visitors navigate to the very best sections of the fair.

Map of 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
Map of 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.

The fair offered educational exhibits including “scientific agriculture,” art, anthropological, “curious exhibits,”  great inventions and discoveries, athletics and health, “electricity up to 1904,” machinery, manufacturing, mining, and “new household methods and art.” Transportation and naval battle exhibits, and even “Women’s Progress Since the World’s Fair at Chicago” were enticing to many fair visitors. The fair even exhibited the world’s largest cedar bucket- it could hold 1,556 gallons, and was about 6 ft. tall, 6 ft. in diameter at the base and 9 ft. in diameter at the top. (You can see it today at Cannonsburgh Village in Murfreesboro, Tennessee.) Music, theater, and other entertainments filled the fair with joy for all ages. The 1904 Olympics even took place on the fairgrounds!

Palace of Fine Arts, 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
Palace of Fine Arts, 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.

It has been claimed that the first waffle ice cream cone was created at the fair, and some say the hot dog, cotton candy, peanut butter, and iced tea were ‘invented’ at the fair. The fair actually made these products popular with the masses, but probably existed before 1904. Puffed Wheat cereal and the soft drink Dr. Pepper were introduced at the fair, however.

Pop culture got a boost with new music like the song, “Meet Me in St. Louis, Louis” which was sung by many artists, but the Judy Garland version in the musical “Meet Me in St. Louis” is probably best known to current generations. Scott Joplin, a St. Louis native, wrote a song about the waterfalls in front of Festival Hall, called, “Cascades” and it helped promote ragtime as the music of the day. Jazz was popular too.

Louisiana Purchase commemorative stamp issued in 1903 for 10 cents. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
Louisiana Purchase commemorative stamp issued in 1903 for 10 cents and promoted at the fair. Via Wikimedia, public domain.

Sadly, many indigenous peoples of the world were put on display, including Geronimo, the brave Apache war chief, a pygmy from the Congo, and peoples from newly-acquired territories from the Spanish-American War, such as the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. The fair did begin a conversation in America about race and ‘primitive’ peoples, and their rights. Ironically, the fair included an “educated” horse named Beautiful Jim Key, and he and his owner, a former slave who also had native-American blood, promoted humane animal treatment.

Geronimo at 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
Geronimo at 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Via Wikimedia, public domain.

Ever heard of the St. Louis Bullfight Riot? As a native St. Louisan, I never had. But yes, a bullfight had been scheduled as a fair activity for 05 June 1904. The Missouri governor halted the fight citing the anti-bullfighting laws in Missouri. (Who knew Missouri had such laws? Holdovers from Spanish possession, perhaps? Wonder if they are still on the books today.) The spectators were angry and demanded refunds, but were turned away. So the mob rioted, burning the arena to the ground. One of the bullfighters murdered another two days later when they fought over payment for the fight that never happened with weak, emaciated bulls.

This photoillustration from the front page of the June 6, 1904 issue of the St. Louis Republic newspaper illustrates the burning of the Norris Amusement Company arena during the St. Louis bullfight riot contemporary to the 1904 World's Fair. Via Wikimedia, public domain.
This photoillustration from the front page of the June 6, 1904 issue of the “St. Louis Republic” newspaper illustrates the burning of the Norris Amusement Company arena during the St. Louis bullfight riot contemporary to the 1904 World’s Fair. Via Wikimedia, public domain. (Click to enlarge.)

Lots of our Heritage Ramblings ancestors lived in St. Louis, many during the 1904 World’s Fair. We will tell some of those stories and see some wonderful artifacts this week.

 

Notes, Sources, and References: 

1) Louisiana Purchase Exposition- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Purchase_Exposition

2) University of Missouri Digital Library- scanned books, images, etc. about the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=lex;cc=lex;sid=8849264c45570e24ed20224cdef04038;rgn=full%20text;tpl=home.tpl

An excellent issue of The Cosmopolitan Magazinehttp://digital.library.umsystem.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=lex;cc=lex;sid=33ae46d1ab7f86bbfd493f78bb96295b;rgn=full%20text;idno=lex012;view=image;seq=1

3) The Missouri History Museum has a wonderful collection of 1904 World’s Fair memorabilia. It is housed in the Jefferson Memorial Building (named in honor of Thomas Jefferson, President when the Louisiana Purchase occurred)  near the park and is a very worthwhile visit.

4) St. Louis Bullfight- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis_bullfight_riot

5) Thanks to Mary Theresa Helbling, who made “Meet Me in St. Louis” with Judy Garland a perennial late movie favorite. See “The Trolley Song” excerpt at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hmx1L8G25q4.

 

Please contact us if you would like higher resolution images. Click to enlarge images.

We would love to read your thoughts and comments about this post (see form below), and thank you for your time! All comments are moderated, however, due to the high intelligence and persistence of spammers/hackers who really should be putting their smarts to use for the public good instead of spamming our little blog.
 

Original content copyright 2013-2015 by Heritage Ramblings Blog and pmm.

Family history is meant to be shared, but the original content of this site may NOT be used for any commercial purposes unless explicit written permission is received from both the blog owner and author. Blogs or websites with ads and/or any income-generating components are included under “commercial purposes,” as are the large genealogy database websites. Sites that republish original HeritageRamblings.net content as their own are in violation of copyright as well, and use of full content is not permitted.
 
Descendants and researchers MAY download images and posts to share with their families, and use the information on their family trees or in family history books with a small number of reprints. Please make sure to credit and cite the information properly.
 
Please contact us if you have any questions about copyright of our blog material.